International SEO: Let them know, you speak their language – hreflang is here to help

Veröffentlicht von + am Okt 1, 2013 in SEO | 7 Kommentare

If you have a multi-language website, you want to make sure your customers find the right one. Geo-targeting with hreflang allows you to really show the right user the right version of your website on a search engine results page. This will lead to better rankings, higher CTRs and higher conversion rates.

International SEO

For quite a while now I have been closely studying and monitoring the application and impact of the rel="alternate" hreflang tag for multilingual and multinational websites.

In light of Google’s most recent blog post on expanding your site to more languages by Maile Ohye (find her on Twitter), I have decided to share a case study with you, which highlights how the correct implementation of this tag has impacted the organic search visibility for a big international brand.

The setting

The brand, next to an international default .com version, owns multiple domains targeted to individual countries. Also, the international version does not only act as a country selector, but hosts the same content (in English) as the country targeted ones.

For this case study I will specifically highlight the impact of the hreflang tagging on the visibility of the .de and .fr country versions versus the .com version in Germany and France respectively.

It is important to note that the .com version has been around for a long time and has a very solid link graph resulting in a Domain Authority of above 70 on The specific country versions however, have only been around since 2013, each having a Domain Authority of below 40.

I am specifically stating this because in the comment section of Aleyda Solis’ (find her on Twitter) recent post on the hreflang generator tool on, the following statement was made:

In fact, even if you do a great localization, even if you follow every single step for geotargeting a site (ccTld or geotargeting the subfolder or subdomain via GWT), if your main site has a Link Profile much more powerful than that of the other country targeting web sites, it will out-stand all the others. The influence of the Link Graph is something we should not forget when talking about International SEO.

I highly respect the author of this comment, but do not agree with the above statement as I know for a fact that correct geo-targeting can bring the desired results – EVEN if the default version of your website is the strongest in terms of Domain Authority.

The tagging

The correct hreflang tagging took place on August 4th, 2013. On this day, all versions and all pages were supplied with new code snippets. And by all, I mean every single URL. The configuration only works properly if every page across all your sites is tagged properly (of course only where applicable, as not every page might exist in multiple languages across multiple domains).

Assuming that there were only a .com, .de and .fr domain involved, the tagging for the three websites’ homepages would have looked the following:

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="x-default" href=""/>
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="de" href=""/>
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="fr" href=""/>

Even though the international default has content in English only, it was decided to tag all .com pages with the hreflang="x-default" instead of hreflang="en". The international default does not only target users speaking English, but rather should serve as the main point of entry for searchers from countries or using languages that are currently not supported.

Google’s John Muller even confirmed the possible use of x-default for websites in English to me in a Webmaster Hangout not too long ago – just in case you are wondering what Google thinks about all this.

The results

So now let’s have a look at how the tagging impacted the visibility of the .com site versus the .de site in Germany:

.com vs. .de

The blue line marks the visibility of the .com version and the green line marks the visibility for the .de version. The red line marks the date of the deployment.

Even though I really don’t like looking at general visibility indices as they really don’t convey much, for this scenario the visibility index from Searchmetrics provides a good overview over what is going on here.

The visibility of the .com and the .de domain switched places. This is simply fantastic. What this really means however, is that searchers in Germany who search on in German will see search snippets in German and by clicking these will be taken to the German website.

What is even better is that users who are in Germany and search on but in English (yes this happens) will be shown search snippets in English. Clicking on one of these will take them to the international default, which is in English, rather than the German website.

What is also striking is the speed at which the changes were applied. Just a couple of days after the deployment, the visibility was correctly configured in Of course, this is largely due to the fact that the international default gets crawled a lot, so don’t expect this to happen at the same speed unless at least one domain in your set has a very high crawl rate.

By the way, the exact same thing happened on for the French website versus the international default site.

.fr vs. .com

So what?

Working with search engines has taught me one thing:

You always want to exercise as much control as possible over how Google crawls and indexes your website. As soon as you leave it up to algorithms to determine what to do with your site, things can go very wrong (and they often do).

Geo-targeting in a nutshell does exactly this. Proper hreflang tagging sends a very strong signal to the google bots and allows them to better understand a set of websites, including their relationship to each other.

The real implications for web masters however should be clear. Geo-targeting allows to really show the right user the right version of your website in search engine result pages – EVEN if the default version of your website is the strongest in terms of domain authority.

I will leave it up to you to figure out what implications this could have for your business. Also, I can’t guarantee that it will work for you in the same way it worked for the example sites. But if you have the resources to try it out then do so: Better rankings, higher CTRs and higher conversion rates could be the direct result!

For more on the use of hreflang check out Google’s video:


  1. Gianluca Fiorelli
    2. Oktober 2013

    Hi Christian,

    great post that I will use as a reinforce when trying to convince clients in implementing the hreflang markup.

    Said that, I think you misunderstood my comment on Moz.

    In fact, in that comment I was not talking against hrelang at all, all the contrary.
    I was saying that even if you have done international SEO right (geo target of the subfolder or used the CcTld, content localization, local link building) but not used the hreflang (or implemented it wrong), it may happen that your more powerful site – especially in a “same language” situation – will outrank your geotargeted web sites because of its stronger and bigger link profile.

    And that is why hreflang is so important.

    My comment was based over the analysis of tens of clients sites of every size.

    • Christian Schickler
      3. Oktober 2013

      Hi Gianluca,

      Thank you so much for your comment. Glad to hear that you’ll be using this as a resource.

      Sorry if I misunderstood the comment of yours on Moz and thank you for clarifying it here. I totally agree with you and can only recommend to use the hreflang tag, since it constitutes such a strong signal for Google.

      We see many websites (also of every size) that do not implement this. The result is always the same – language versions cannibalize each other and that in turn results in a direct loss of control over the rankings.

  2. Paolo
    25. Oktober 2013

    Hi Gianluca,

    I am trying to solve problems with duplicate content using hreflang in my multilanguage soccer network websites. I have the same content through 7 differents domains, each domain is a replica of the other ones but in its own language. In my case the main domain is in spanish. With “main domain” i mean the one with more domain authority. This “main domain” is 5 years old. The other domains (en, en-uk, de, fr, it, pt) are new ones, launched this year. This new domains don’t target specific countries, they target entire languages.

    My questions are:

    1) Should I use this hreflang tag or is best to geo-localize this new domains to a country (thats not the goal of this project)?
    2) In case using hreflang, should I use “x-default”? It doesn’t care if the “x-default” is the english version (remember that the “main domain” is in spanish)? What effect can it cause?
    3) Is the “main domain” going to “transfer” positive values to the new domins so they can compete with other sites with higher domain authority, even if this “main domain” is not a “x-default”?
    4) I need to use a canonical with hreflang in this case?

    I understand that hreflang is the best solution for duplicate content in this case, but I’m scared about what can happend or how this hreflang can affect the SEO and SERPS of the “main domain”.

    Thanks for your suggestions.

    • Christian Schickler
      30. Oktober 2013

      Hi Paolo,

      Let me try to answer your questions for you:

      1.) I suggest you to certainly use hreflang tags for all your domains and remember to do so for every single URL. If you want to enjoy a good visibility in other countries don’t forget that there are other signals besides the hreflang tags that also influence this.

      2.) You can use “x-default” to label a version within your set that is not targeted to any country or language but should serve as a default, when all other options don’t match.

      3.) Try to focus on building domain authority for each single domain rather than expecting transfer of value.

      4.) Since I don’t know how your sites are set up exactly I cannot provide a complete answer on this. In any case, there is a documentation on how to use canonicals for international domains in the video included in the blog post.

      Hope this helps and good luck with your project!

  3. Paolo
    12. November 2013

    Hi Christian, and thanks for your answer.

    I have a last question regarding “x-default”. I understood that this markup was dedicated just to a single page where you have a language selector, like a landing page, but just a single one. This is what Google support’s recommend:

    “For language/country selectors or auto-redirecting homepages, you should add an annotation for the hreflang value “x-default” as well:………………… Finally, the reserved value “x-default” is used for indicating language selectors/redirectors which are not specific to one language or region, e.g. your homepage showing a clickable map of the world.”

    Do you mean, in the example I explained to you a couple of weeks ago, that I can use “x-deafult” for every single page of my english website version instead of “en”? That should be my “universal” website because is an universal language. But, every time I read Google recommendations I understand that the “x-default” must be used just to let Google know which is the language selector for a user in a non targeted language.

    Thanks for your help.


    • Christian Schickler
      12. Dezember 2013

      Hi Paolo,

      You can use “x-default” for multiple pages. As mentioned in the post, I had this confirmed by John Muller from Google and could observe the working of it IRL.

      Google will then treat these pages as fallback pages when all your other language versions don’t apply. This might come in handy when you have an EN version that you would like to treat as the international default version when you have other EN versions specifically targeted to the US or the UK.

      The requirements are different for each specific case, so you will have to decide what the best setup is. If you see English pages cannibalizing each other in the SERPs then try to see if using the hreflang tag could solve this problem.

      Best regards,

  4. Christian Schickler
    12. Dezember 2013

    Hi Simon,

    I assume in this case you also have a .de and a .fr domain? In that case you would specify the ccTLDs using only the country codes and specify the CH version using country and language codes. Have a look at google’s guidelines: They should provide you with all info you require in your specific scenario. If not, let me know.



Leave a Reply